Earthing Research, Studies & Review Articles

Table Of Contents

The modern pursuit of scientific evidence that grounding impacts human physiology and health began with Drs. Karol and Pawel Sokal in Poland and Clint Ober in the United States in the 1990s.

The research that has followed has produced fascinating evidence of a powerful and positive shift in the electrical state of the body and the electrodynamics of blood, and a boost to self-healing and self-regulating mechanisms.

We believe that Earthing allows a transfer of electrons from the ground into the body. We know that inflammation is caused by free radicals and that free radicals are neutralized by electrons from any source. Electrons are the source of the neutralizing power of antioxidants.

In the Earthing studies, as well as global feedback from thousands of individuals who have grounded themselves, we have consistent evidence of people whose pain has been reduced. Such reduction of pain is evidence (but not proof) that inflammation is reduced. However, the studies point clearly in that direction.

The titles of the studies conducted to date are listed below.  Click on the titles to read the studies.


Earthing studies

  1. Grounding the Body Improves Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Study 2022
  2. How Localized Grounding, Combined with Conductive Skincare, Improves the Outcomes of the Traditional Skincare? 2021
  3. A double-blind randomized trial to assess the efficacy of Jing Advanced Clinical Massage and Earthing as interventions in the treatment of chronic low back pain 2021
  4. The Effects of Grounding on Meditation Quality: A Preliminary Study Report 2019 (abstract)
  5. Effectiveness of Grounded Sleeping on Recovery after Intensive Eccentric Muscle Loading 2019
  6. The Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Bodyworkers’ Pain and Overall Quality of Life: A randomized Controlled Trial 2019
  7. Grounding Patients With Hypertension Improves Blood Pressure: A Case History Series Study 2018
  8. Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Massage Therapists 2018
  9. Classification of EEG Signal for Body Earthing Application 2018
  10. Electrical Grounding Improves Vagal Tone in Preterm Infants 2017     View study charts here
  11. Effects of Grounding on Body Voltage and Current in the Presence of Electromagnetic Fields 2016
  12. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing 2016
  13. Grounding After Moderate Eccentric Contractions Reduces Muscle Damage 2015
  14. One-Hour Contact with the Earth’s Surface (Grounding) Improves Inflammation and Blood Flow—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Pilot Study 2015
  15. The Effect of Grounding the Human Body on Mood 2015
  16. Grounding the Human Body during Yoga Exercise with a Grounded Yoga Mat Reduces Blood Viscosity 2015
  17. An Experimental Study on Immediate Effect of Direct Barefoot Contact with Earth on Prehypertension 2015
  18. Grounding the Human Body Improves Facial Blood Flow Regulation 2014
  19. Differences in Blood Urea and Creatinine Concentrations in Earthed and Unearthed Subjects during Cycling Exercise and Recovery 2013
  20. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—a Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease 2013 
  21. Earthing the Human Organism Influences Bioelectrical Processes 2012
  22. Emotional Stress, Heart Rate Variability, Grounding, and Improved Autonomic Tone: Clinical Applications 2011 
  23. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes 2011.   Editorial: Chronic Disease: Are We Missing Something?
  24. Pilot Study on the Effect of Grounding on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness 2010
  25. Earthing effects in Lewis Rats 2010
  26. Changes in Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, Blood Oxygenation, Perfusion Index, Skin Conductance, and Their Variability Induced During and After Grounding Human Subjects for 40 Minutes 2010
  27. The Effect Of Earthing On Human Physiology, Part 2 2007
  28. The Effect Of Earthing On Human Physiology, Part 1 2006
  29. The Effectiveness of a Conductive Patch and a Conductive Bed Pad in Reducing Induced Human Body Voltage Via the Application of Earth Ground 2005
  30. The Biologic Effects of Grounding the Human Body During Sleep as Measured by Cortisol Levels and Subjective Reporting of Sleep, Pain, and Stress 2004
  31. Thermography Case Histories 2004-2005
  32. Initial Grounding Experimentation by Clint Ober, 2000 (as part of a brief historical review of Earthing)


Earthing review articles

  1. Integrative and Lifestyle Medicine Strategies Should Include Earthing (Grounding): Review of Research Evidence and Clinical Observations 2020
  2. Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing) Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Sep;23(5):8-16.
  3. Prevention and Treatment of Influenza, Influenza-Like Illness, and Common Clod by Herbal, Complementary, and Natural Therapies 2017
  4. The Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Inflammation, Immune Response, Wound Healing, and Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases 2015
  5. Biophysics of Earthing (grounding) the Human Body, in Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine (CRC Press), 2015
  6. Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth’s Surface Electrons 2012
  7. The Neuromodulative Role of Earthing 2011


Earthing commentaries

  1. Prevention and/or Recovery from Corona Virus Infections: Clint Ober, James Oschman, Ph.D.
  2. Rx Earth – The Original Painkiller! James Oschman, Ph.D., Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D., Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D.
  3. Essential for Women – Your Body, Your Health: Grounding Your Rhythms James Oschman, Ph.D., Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.
  4. Understanding Earthing (Grounding) James Oschman, Ph.D., Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.
  5. The Earth’s Electrical Surface Potential: A Summary of Present Understanding: Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.
  6. Can Electrons Act as Antioxidants? A Review and Commentary: James Oschman, Ph.D.
  7. Charge Transfer in the Living Matrix: James Oschman, Ph.D.
  8. Perspective: Assume a Spherical Cow: The role of Free or Mobile Electrons in Bodywork, Energetic and Movement Therapies: James Oschman, Ph.D.
  9. Fatigued? Let Grounding Recharge Your Battery
  10. Earthing vs. “Good” and “Bad” Free Radicals: James Oschman, Ph.D.
  11. Earthing Speeds Sports/Training Recovery, Lessens Muscle Damage and Inflammation
  12. Earthing, Inflammation, and Aging – Something to Think About: Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.
  13. Matteo Tavera: A French Naturalist’s Vision of the Importance of “Natural Electricity” to Life
  14. Earthing Poster 2018 Congress on Integrative Medicine
  15. Adolf Just (1859-1936)
  16. Fred Vlès: Les Conditions Biologiques crées par les propriétés électriques de l’atmosphère – Le comportement des organismes électriquement connectés au sol, ou isolés de celui-ci


Misinformation about Earthing

  1. Beware of Earthing Misinformation, Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.
  2. Earthing and Ground Currents
  3. Grounding Does Not Turn You Into an Antenna for EMFs
  4. Earthing and so-called “dirty electricity”